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Varicose Veins and Spider Veins


What are varicose veins and spider veins?

Varicose (VAR-i-kos) veins are enlarged veins that can be blue, red, or flesh-colored. They often look like cords and appear twisted and bulging. They can be swollen and raised above the surface of the skin. Varicose veins are often found on the thighs, backs of the calves, or the inside of the leg. During pregnancy, varicose veins can form around the vagina and buttocks.

Spider veins are like varicose veins but smaller. They also are closer to the surface of the skin than varicose veins. Often, they are red or blue. They can look like tree branches or spiderwebs with their short, jagged lines. They can be found on the legs and face and can cover either a very small or very large area of skin.


What causes varicose veins and spider veins?

Varicose veins can be caused by weak or damaged valves in the veins. The heart pumps blood filled with oxygen and nutrients to the whole body through the arteries. Veins then carry the blood from the body back to the heart. As your leg muscles squeeze, they push blood back to the heart from your lower body against the flow of gravity. Veins have valves that act as one-way flaps to prevent blood from flowing backwards as it moves up your legs. If the valves become weak, blood can leak back into the veins and collect there. (This problem is called venous insufficiency.) When backed-up blood makes the veins bigger, they can become varicose.

Spider veins can be caused by the backup of blood. They can also be caused by hormone changes, exposure to the sun, and injuries.


How common are abnormal leg veins?

About 50 to 55 percent of women and 40 to 45 percent of men in the United States suffer from some type of vein problem. Varicose veins affect half of people 50 years and older.


What factors increase my risk of varicose veins and spider veins?

Many factors increase a person's chances of developing varicose or spider veins. These include:


Why do varicose veins and spider veins usually appear in the legs?

Most varicose and spider veins appear in the legs due to the pressure of body weight, force of gravity, and task of carrying blood from the bottom of the body up to the heart.

Compared with other veins in the body, leg veins have the toughest job of carrying blood back to the heart. They endure the most pressure. This pressure can be stronger than the one-way valves in the veins.


What are the signs of varicose veins?

Varicose veins can often be seen on the skin. Some other common symptoms of varicose veins in the legs include:


Are varicose veins and spider veins dangerous?

Spider veins rarely are a serious health problem, but they can cause uncomfortable feelings in the legs. If there are symptoms from spider veins, most often they will be itching or burning. Less often, spider veins can be a sign of blood backup deeper inside that you can't see on the skin. If so, you could have the same symptoms you would have with varicose veins.

Varicose veins may not cause any problems, or they may cause aching pain, throbbing, and discomfort. In some cases, varicose veins can lead to more serious health problems. These include:


Should I see a doctor about varicose veins?

You should see a doctor about varicose veins if:


How are varicose veins diagnosed?

Your doctor may diagnose your varicose veins based on a physical exam. Your doctor will look at your legs while you're standing or sitting with your legs dangling. He or she may ask you about your symptoms, including any pain you're having. Sometimes, you may have other tests to find out the extent of the problem and to rule out other disorders.

You might have an ultrasound, which is used to see the veins' structure, check the blood flow in your veins, and look for blood clots. This test uses sound waves to create pictures of structures in your body.

Although less likely, you might have a venogram. This test can be used to get a more detailed look at blood flow through your veins.

If you seek help for your varicose veins, there are several types of doctors you can see, including:


How are varicose and spider veins treated?

Varicose veins are treated with lifestyle changes and medical treatments. These can:

Your doctor may recommend lifestyle changes if your varicose veins don't cause many symptoms. If symptoms are more severe, your doctor may recommend medical treatments. Some treatment options include:

The same vein may need to be treated more than once. Treatments are usually done every 4 to 6 weeks. You may be asked to wear gradient compression stockings after sclerotherapy to help with healing and decrease swelling. This treatment is very effective when done correctly.

Possible side effects include:


Surface Laser Treatments

Generally speaking, surface Laser treatments have not provide great success in treatment of varicose or spider veins. Surface laser systems can only target very limited size of veins and cannot treat medium and large feeder vein (reticular veins) or varicose veins. Sclerotherapy, when properly administared by an experienced physician in sclerotherapy, can treat varying vein sizes, better than surface laser treatments.


Endovenous Techniques (Radiofrequency and Laser)

These methods for treating the deeper veins of the legs, called the saphenous (SAF-uh-nuhs) veins, have replaced surgery for most patients with severe varicose veins. These techniques can be done in a doctor's office.

The doctor puts a very small tube, called a catheter, into the vein. A small probe is placed through the tube. A device at the tip of the probe heats up the inside of the vein and closes it off. The device can use radiofrequency or laser energy to seal the vein. The procedure can be done using just local anesthesia. You might have slight bruising after treatment.

Healthy veins around the closed vein take over the normal flow of blood. The symptoms from the varicose vein improve. Usually, veins on the surface of the skin that are connected to the treated varicose vein will also shrink after treatment. If they don't, these connected veins can be treated with sclerotherapy or other techniques.


Surgery

Surgery is used mostly to treat very large varicose veins. Types of surgery for varicose veins include:


How can I prevent varicose veins and spider veins?

Not all varicose and spider veins can be prevented. But, there are some steps you can take to reduce your chances of getting new varicose and spider veins. These same things can help ease discomfort from the ones you already have:


Can varicose and spider veins return even after treatment?

Current treatments for varicose veins and spider veins have very high success rates compared to traditional surgical treatments. Over a period of years, however, more abnormal veins can develop because there is no cure for weak vein valves. Ultrasound can be used to keep track of how badly the valves are leaking (venous insufficiency). Ongoing treatment can help keep this problem under control.

The single most important thing you can do to slow down the development of new varicose veins is to wear gradient compression support stockings as much as possible during the day.